SNSBI_banner_00.png

Gelling-Cole photographs

These photographs of landscape features illustrating place-name elements were taken by the late Dr. Margaret Gelling and Dr. Ann Cole and some of them were used to make sketches in their book The landscape of place-names (LPN, published by Shaun Tyas 2000, reprinted with corrections 2003, new edition re-set and with some minor amendments 2014). They were scanned by Susan Laflin, originally for a CD distributed at the SNSBI autumn 2014 meeting in Shrewsbury, and converted to this webpage form by Keith Briggs. In consultation with Ann Cole, a number of small corrections and updates have been made here to the CD version. Clicking on an image brings up the original full-size photo.

They are reproduced here by permission of Dr. Ann Cole, also in her capacity as literary executor for Dr. Gelling. Copyright is held by Dr. Ann Cole in respect of photographs taken by Dr. Cole (marked “AC”), and by the trustees of the estate of the late Dr. Gelling in respect of photographs taken by Dr. Gelling (marked “MG”). One photograph, marked “MH” is by Mary Higham. Permission has been granted to reproduce these photographs for personal, educational, and other non-commercial use. Copying, hiring, lending, or any other use for commercial purposes is prohibited. The photographs may be used for such permitted purposes subject to the inclusion of this notice:

Photographs by the late Dr. Margaret Gelling or Dr. Ann Cole. Reproduced with permission from the estate of Dr. Gelling and Dr. Cole from http://www.snsbi.org.uk/Gelling-Cole_photos.html

Jump to: æcer akr ǣwiell ǣwielm bæc bæc,bece bæth beorg berg berg,beorg botm botn bottom breȝ brōc burna clif cnoll copp corf crūg cumb dæl dalr denu dūn ēa ecg ēg,īeg ersc feld fenn flēot ford funta gelād (ge)wæd gil grǣfe hǣth halh,healh hamm haugr helde hlāw,hlǣw hlinc hlith hōh hop hyll hӯth lacu lād læcc mǣd mere mōr ofer ōra pæth pīc pōl port pyll rǣc ric rīthig,rīth scelf slæd slǣp sol(h) sol(h),sele stīg stǫth strǣt wæsse wæter weg well(-a,-e) wisc yfre


County abbreviations, with also the standard EPNS abbreviation: BDF=Bd=Bedfordshire, BRK=Brk=Berkshire, BUC=Bk=Buckinghamshire, CAM=C=Cambridgeshire, CHE=Ch=Cheshire, CMB=Cu=Cumberland, CNW=Co=Cornwall, DEV=D=Devon, DOR=Do=Dorset, DRB=Db=Derbyshire, DRH=Du=Durham, ESX=Ess=Essex, GLO=Gl=Gloucestershire, HMP=Ha=Hampshire, HNT=Hu=Huntingdonshire, HRE=He=Herefordshire, HRT=Hrt=Hertfordshire, IOW=Wt=Isle of Wight, KNT=K=Kent, LEI=Lei=Leicestershire, LIN=L=Lincolnshire, LNC=La=Lancashire, MDX=Mx=Middlesex, NFK=Nf=Norfolk, NTB=Nb=Northumberland, NTP=Nth=Northamptonshire, NTT=Nt=Nottinghamshire, OXF=O=Oxfordshire, RUT=Ru=Rutland, SFK=Sf=Suffolk, SHR=Sa=Shropshire, SOM=So=Somerset, SSX=Sx=Sussex, STF=St=Staffordshire, SUR=Sr=Surrey, WAR=Wa=Warwickshire, WLT=W=Wiltshire, WML=We=Westmorland, WOR=Wo=Worcestershire, YOE=YE=East Riding of Yorkshire, YON=YN=North Riding of Yorkshire, YOW=YW=West Riding of Yorkshire.


æcer

ACER01.jpg 

æcer OE ‘plot of cultivated land’. INNSACRE, DOR. 13c. ‘Ine’s plot of cultivated land’. It lies in a steep little valley with little tillable land. SY496925. AC.


akr

AKR01.jpg 

akr ON ‘plot of cultivated land’. MUKER, YON. c.1274. ‘Narrow plot of cultivated land’. The floor of the upper end of Swaledale is narrow here. SD911989. MG.


ǣwiell

AWIELL01.jpg 

ǣwiell OE ‘copious spring’. ALTON PANCRAS, DOR. 1001-12, DB. ‘Settlement with a copious spring’. It is the source in the chalk country of the river Piddle. Pancras from the church dedication. ST695023. MG.

AWIELL02.jpg 

ǣwiell OE ‘copious spring’. ALDON, SHR. DB. ‘Hill (dūn) by a copious spring’. The flow here in Aldon Gutter is reduced because of abstraction. SO435796. AC.

AWIELL03.jpg 

ǣwiell OE ‘copious spring’. ALTON BARNES AND PRIORS, WLT. 892 (c.1150), DB. ‘Settlement with a copious spring’. The springs issuing from the chalk are slightly artesian, the upwelling sweeps the chalk clear of mud producing blue patches. SU107621. AC.


ǣwielm

AWIELM01.jpg 

ǣwielm OE ‘copious spring’. NEWELM, near Firle, SSX. 1386. The spring issues from the chalk of the South Downs. TQ465072. MG.

AWIELM02.jpg 

ǣwielm OE ‘copious spring’. A charter boundary example at GINGE, BRK (S583), 956, DB. SU445867. MG.


bæc

BAEC01.jpg 

bæc OE ‘back’. LANDBEACH, CAM. DB. ‘Land’ (as opposed to water) ‘back’. A fenland settlement where having a slight rise above the marshland was critical. Note spire amid trees. TL476653. AC.


bæc, bece

BAEC02.jpg 

BÆC, BECE OE ‘stream, stream valley’. EVESBATCH, HRE. DB. ‘Esa’s stream valley. SO686482. MG.


bæth

BAETH01.jpg 

bæth OE ‘artificial pool’. BAULKING (or BALKING; EPNS Brk 350), BRK. c.870 (c.1240). ‘Lācing with the pools’. Lācing is a stream name. It flows over a deposit of fullers’ earth. There were 7 small pools, created by damming the stream, in which wool or fleece were probably fulled. Pool 5 is the largest pool. SU322911. AC.

BAETH02.jpg 

bæth OE ‘artificial pool’. BAULKING, BRK. c. 870 (c.1240). ‘Lācing with the pools’. Lācing is a stream name. It flows over a deposit of fullers’ earth. There were 7 small pools, created by damming the stream, in which wool or fleece were probably fulled. This is an overgrown pool. SU321911. AC.

BAETH03.jpg 

bæth OE ‘artificial pool’. BAULKING, BRK. c.870 (c.1240). ‘Lācing with the pools’. Lācing is a stream name. It flows over a deposit of fullers’ earth. Wool or fleeces were probably washed in the pools. This shows a stream laden with fullers’ earth disturbed by modern extraction (1989). SU322912. AC.


beorg

BEORG01.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. WARBOROUGH, OXF. 1200. ‘Look-out rounded hill’. The hill commands views of the Thames, the Sinodun Hills, and a Roman road. The settlement is beside the hill. [LPN p.146]. SU596945. AC.

BEORG02.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. CHURCH HANBOROUGH, OXF. DB. ‘Hagena’s rounded hill’. An unusually large beorg with the settlement on its top. [LPN p.147]. SP435128. AC.

BEORG03.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. INKBERROW, WOR. 789(11c.). ‘Inta’s rounded hills’. SP016573. MG.

BEORG04.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. EDLESBOROUGH, BUC. DB. ‘Eadwulf’s rounded hill’. There is room for the church on the hilltop, but not for the settlement. [LPN p.146]. SP970190. AC.

BEORG05.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. BROMSBERROW, GLO. DB. ‘Broom-covered rounded hill’. [LPN p.146]. SO744337. AC.

BEORG06.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. SHUCKBURGH, WAR. DB. ‘Goblin rounded hill’. SP489609. AC.

BEORG07.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. PANBOROUGH, SOM. 956, DB. ‘Path’ or ‘wayfarer + rounded hill’. ST475454. MG.

BEORG08.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. PRINCES RISBOROUGH, BUC. 966 (12c.). ‘Brushwood rounded hills’ (note plural). Pulpit Hill. SP831050. AC.

BEORG09.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. PRINCES RISBOROUGH, BUC. 966 (12c.). ‘Brushwood rounded hills’ (note plural). Whiteleaf Hill. SP822040. AC.

BEORG10.jpg 

beorg OE ‘rounded hill’. THORNBOROUGH, BUC. DB. ‘Thorn-tree rounded hill’. Referring to two Roman burial mounds. [LPN p.147]. SP732333. AC.


berg

BERG01.jpg 

berg ON, Anglian, ‘rounded hill’. BROWNBER (Ravenstonedale) WML. 1591. ‘Brown rounded hill’. One of a field of drumlins. NY705057. MG.

BERG02.jpg 

berg ON, Anglian, ‘rounded hill’. BROWNBER countryside, WML, 1591. Drumlins in Ravenstonedale area. NY6805. MG.


berg, beorg

BERG03.jpg 

berg, beorg ON, Anglian ‘rounded hill’. LITTLE BARUGH, YON. DB. ‘Rounded hill’. SE761796. MG.

BERG04.jpg 

berg, beorg ON. Anglian ‘rounded hill’. ROOK BARUGH, YON. c.1140. ‘Rook’s rounded hill’. from personal name Hrókr or Hrōc. [LPN p.147]. SE520823. MG.


botm

BOTM01.jpg 

botm OE ‘flat valley floor’. BOTHENHAMPTON, DOR. 1268. ‘Home farm by the flat valley bottom’. SY465914. AC.

BOTM02.jpg 

botm OE ‘flat valley floor’. BOTHAMSALL, NTT. DB. ‘Flat valley floor’ + uncertain second element, perhaps scelf or hyll. The botm lies between the rivers Meden and Maun. SK675728. MG.


botn

BOTN01.jpg 

botn ON ‘flat valley floor’. BOTTON, LNC. c.1230. In Wray with Botton, referring to flood-land beside the river Hindburn. SD66 photo by Mary Higham. MH.

BOTN02.jpg 

botn ON ‘flat valley floor’. STARBOTTON, YOW. DB. ‘Stakes + flat valley floor’. The valley bottom is a silted-up pro-glacial lake. SD953745. AC.


bottom

BOTTOM01.jpg 

bottom Mod.E ‘valley floor’. PIGTROUGH BOTTOM (Ipsden) OXF. In modern usage the valley floor is not necessarily flat. SU637865. AC.


breȝ

BRE01.jpg 

breȝ PrW ‘hill, brow of a hill’. BREDON, WOR. 772 (11c.), DB. ‘Hill + whaleback hill’ (OE dūn). In effect ‘Bre Hill’. SO7236. AC.

BRE02.jpg 

breȝ PrW ‘hill, brow of a hill’. BRILL, BUC. 1072(1225), DB. ‘Hill + hill’ (OE hyll). In effect ‘Bre Hill’. SP8940. AC.


brōc

BROC01.jpg 

brōc OE ‘stream, usually muddy’. HOLBROOK, SUR. 1213. ‘Muddy stream in a hollow’. TQ160383. AC.

BROC02.jpg 

brōc OE ‘stream, usually muddy’. SKIDBROOKE, LIN. DB. ‘Dung + muddy stream’. TF451930. AC.

BROC03.jpg 

brōc OE ‘’stream, usually muddy’. BROOKE, RUT. 1176. Sedge picks out the brook’s course during a drought. SK850058. AC.

BROC04.jpg 

brōc OE ‘stream, usually muddy’. BROUGHTON, OXF. DB. ‘Settlement on a muddy stream’. The Sor Brook – normal flow. SP420380. AC.

BROC05.jpg 

brōc OE ‘stream, usually muddy’. BROUGHTON, OXF. DB. ‘Settlement on a muddy stream’. The Sor Brook in flood after heavy rain. SP420380. AC.

BROC06.jpg 

brōc OE ‘stream, usually muddy’. WINTERBROOK, BRK. Hy3. ‘Muddy stream with strong flow in winter’. Summer – low flow. SU592888. AC.

BROC07.jpg 

brōc OE ‘stream, usually muddy’. WINTERBROOK, BRK. Hy3. ‘Muddy stream with strong flow in winter’. Winter – full flow. SU592882. AC.


burna

BURNA01.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. PANGBOURNE, BRK. 843, DB. ‘Clear stream of Pǣga’s people’. Shows gravelly bed and submerged aquatic vegetation. SU590720. AC.

BURNA02.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. LAMBOURN, BRK. c.880 (e.11c) DB. ‘Lambs + clear stream’. Shows gravel bed and submerged vegetation. SU327792. AC.

BURNA03.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. BURNHAM, NFK. DB. ‘farmstead on a clear stream’. Shows the bourne at Burnham Thorpe. TF852418. AC.

BURNA04.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. SHERBOURNE, SUR. 1464. ‘Bright clear stream’. TQ061485. AC.

BURNA05.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. TICHBOURNE, HMP. c.909 (12c.). ‘Kid + clear stream’. View of bourne near Vernal Farm. SU572301. AC.

BURNA06.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. CALBOURNE, IOW. 826 (12c.). ‘Kale + clear stream’. SZ423866. AC.

BURNA07.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. HURSTBOURNE, HMP. 786-93 (13c.) DB. ‘Tendrils + clear stream’. The tendrils refer to young leaves of Phalaris (canary grass) seen here in spring. SU409512. AC.

BURNA08.jpg 

burna OE ‘stream, usually clear’. HUSBOURNE, BDF. 960 (11c.). ‘Tendrils + clear stream’. The previous season’s tendrils have become the upright brown stalks (of Phalaris – canary grass). SP954355. AC.


clif

CLIF01.jpg 

clif OE ‘steep slope, cliff’. ARNCLIFFE, YOW. DB. ‘Eagles’ cliff’. SD933720. AC.

CLIF02.jpg 

clif OE ‘steep slope, cliff’. GATCLIFFE FARM, IOW. 1352. ‘Goats + steep slope’. The farm is in the distance [LPN p.154]. SZ530803. AC.

CLIF03.jpg 

clif OE ‘steep slope, cliff’. HORNCLIFFE, NTB. 1208-10. ‘Cliff in a tongue of land’. At a bend in the river Tweed. NT930499. AC.

CLIF04.jpg 

clif OE ‘Steep slope, cliff’. SWALCLIFFE, OXF. c.1166. ‘Swallow cliff’. The settlement overlooks a steep-sided little valley. SP378379. AC.

CLIF05.jpg 

clif OE ‘steep slope, cliff’. CLEVANCY, WLT. DB. ‘Cliff + family name’. Sited by a steep chalk escarpment. SU050753. AC.

CLIF06.jpg 

clif OE ‘steep slope, cliff’. SWALLOWCLIFFE, WLT. DB. ‘Swallow cliff’. Referring to a steep scarp slope at ST970256. AC.

CLIF07.jpg 

clif OE ‘steep slope, cliff’. CLIFTON, OXF. C.1170. ‘Cliff settlement’. Referring to a riverside cliff by the Cherwell [LPN p.154]. SP490318. AC.

CLIF08.jpg 

clif OE ‘steep slope, cliff’. CLIFTON HAMPDEN, OXF. 1146. ‘Cliff settlement + family name’. The church is perched on a river cliff above the Thames. [LPN p.154]. SU548956. AC.


cnoll

CNOLL01.jpg 

cnoll OE ‘knoll’. KNOWLE FARM, STF. t.Ed2. ‘Knoll’. An abrupt hill with a level summit near Lichfield. SK117073. MG.


copp

COPP02.jpg 

copp OE ‘summit’. WARCOP, WML. 12c. ‘Lookout + (narrow) summit’ or ‘summit with cairns’. [LPN p.158]. NY745152. MG.


corf

CORF02.jpg 

corf OE ‘valley, pass’. CORVE FARM, IOW. Late 13c. Picture shows a road going through a pass near Corve Farm. SZ480802. AC.

CORF03.jpg 

corf OE ‘valley, pass’. CORTON, DOR. DB. SY636855. CORYATES, DOR. DB. SY629854. ‘settlement and gap at the pass’. Coryates is on the left of the view. [LPN p.103]. SY636855 & SY629854 . AC.

CORF04.jpg 

corf OE ‘valley, pass’. CORTON DENHAM, SOM. DB. ‘Settlement by the pass’ + family name. The deep cleft shown is by Girt Farm. Corton Denham is amid the trees in the valley. [LPN p.103]. ST631236. AC.


crūg

CRUG01.jpg 

crūg OE, or CRÜG BRITISH ‘hill, mound, tumulus’. often abrupt. CROOK HILL, DOR. 1407. From British crüg with OE ‘hill’. Also mentioned in a charter of 841 (12th). ST498067. MG.

CRUG02.jpg 

crūg OE or CRÜG BRITISH ‘hill, mound, tumulus’. often abrupt. EAST CREECH, DOR. DB. The view shows East Creech Farm and Creech Hill. SY927826. AC.

CRUG03.jpg 

crūg OE ‘ hill, mound, tumulus’. often abrupt. CRICK, NTP DB. The eponymous hill is Crack’s Hill. SP595736. MG.

CRUG04.jpg 

crūg OE ‘hill, mound, tumulus’. often abrupt. CROUCH HILL, OXF. 1215. ‘Abrupt hill or mound’. near Banbury. SP444393. AC.

CRUG05.jpg 

crūg OE ‘hill, mound, tumulus’. often abrupt. CROOKBARROW, WOR. c.1225. ‘Rounded abrupt hill’, from crūg + beorg [LPN p.160]. SO875523. AC.

CRUG06.jpg 

crūg OE ‘hill, mound, tumulus’. often abrupt. CREECHBARROW, SOM. 682. ‘Rounded abrupt hill’. from crūg + beorg. Creech Castle (hotel) is on the right. [LPN p.160]. ST246255. MG.


cumb

CUMB01.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. TELSCOMBE, SSX. 966(c.1400). ‘Tylel’s coombe’. [LPN p.104]. TQ405034. MG.

CUMB02.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. COOMBE FARM, IOW. 1251. This is near Brighstone, referred to as Seutecome in DB [LPN p.104]. SZ430836. AC.

CUMB03.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. OXCOMBE, LIN. DB. ‘Oxen + bowl-shaped valley’. An unusually large, shallow coombe, distant from the main distribution. TF312771. AC.

CUMB04.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. SWYNCOMBE, OXF. DB. ‘Swine coombe’. In the scarp slope of the Chilterns. SU682901. AC.

CUMB05.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. ENCOMBE, DOR. 1244. ‘Wild bird coombe’. Southern, seaward part of the coombe. SX944786. AC.

CUMB06.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. ENCOMBE, DOR. 1244. ‘Wild bird coombe’. Northern, inland part of coombe. SY944786. AC.

CUMB07.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped vallley, coombe’. WEST COMPTON, DOR. 934 (e.ME), DB. ‘Western settlement in a coombe’. View from the Roman road west of Dorchester. SY563943. AC.

CUMB08.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. COMPTON VALENCE, DOR. DB. ‘Settlement in a coombe + family name’. View from the Roman road west of Dorchester. SY593933. AC.

CUMB09.jpg 

cumb OE ‘bowl-shaped valley, coombe’. CASSEY COMPTON, GLO. 962, DB. ‘Family name + settlement in a coombe’. Showing salt way heading north towards Droitwich. SP050150. AC.


dæl

DALR01.jpg 

dæl late OE; DALR ON ‘main valley, dale’. MONSALL (DALE), DBY. late 12c. ‘Mōrwine’s nook of land’ (halh), with OE dæl added by t.Eliz.1, referring to the whole valley. SK183715. AC.


dalr

DALR02.jpg 

dalr ON ‘main valley, dale’. THIXENDALE, YOE. DB. ‘Stigstein’s dale’. A valley in the Yorkshire Wolds. SE843611. AC.


denu

DENU01.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. OXENDEAN, SSX. t.Eliz.1. ‘Oxen + long valley’. [LPN p.116]. TQ560007. AC.

DENU02.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. CHUTE STANDEN, WLT. 778(c.1225), DB. ‘Stony long valley in Chute (Forest). Showing flints in the field. SU309536. AC.

DENU03.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. PLOWDEN, SHR. 1252. ‘Play + long valley’. Part of the valley of the river Onny. SO379877. AC.

DENU04.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. SABDEN, LNC. c.1140. ‘Spruce tree + long valley’. SD780377. AC.

DENU05.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. HAYDON BRIDGE, NTB. 1236. ‘Hay + long valley’. NY842644. AC.

DENU06.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. HAMBLEDEN, BUC. 1015, DB. ‘Misshapen long valley’. Looking at the great bend in the valley from Turville Hill. [LPN p.116]. SU771913. AC.

DENU07.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. IPSDEN, OXF. DB. ‘Long valley of the upland’. The valley leads into the Chilterns from the Icknield Way. SU631852. AC.

DENU08.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. ELVENDEN, OXF. 1121-2. ‘Fairy + long valley’. Early spellings suggest this is from denu (pace PNs OXF). It has an echo. SU624813. AC.

DENU09.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. ASSENDON, OXF. l.10c (11c.). ‘Asses + long valley’. Probably named from the pack asses using an old routeway along this valley. [LPN p.116]. SU735880 (looking south). AC.

DENU10.jpg 

denu OE ‘long valley, dean’. ASSENDON, OXF. l.10c (11c.). Asses + long valley’. The bourne rises in very wet winters, as it did in 2001 and 2014. SU736874. AC.


dūn

DUN01.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. GARSINGTON, OXF. DB. ‘Grassy whale-back hill’. View from Toot Baldon. SP580020. AC.

DUN02.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. TOOT BALDON, OXF. 1050, DB. ‘Look-out + Bealda’s whale-back hill’. View from Garsington. It lies on the Roman road from Dorchester to Alchester. [LPN p.166]. SP566007. AC.

DUN03.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. SHENINGTON, OXF. DB. ‘Beautiful whale-back hill’. SP373428. AC.

DUN04.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. LONG CRENDON, BUC. DB. ‘Creoda’s whale-back hill’. A long-strung-out settlement as seen from the SW. SP698091. AC.

DUN05.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. STEEPLE CLAYDON BUC DB. ‘Clayey whale-back hill’. Distinguished from adjacent Claydons by having a steeple. [LPN p.166]. SP705267. AC.

DUN06.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. ODDINGTON, OXF. DB. ‘Otta’s whale-back hill’. The settlement lies on a rise above the marshes of Otmoor. SP553147. AC.

DUN07.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. BILLINGTON, BDF 1196. ‘Billa’s whale-back hill’. [LPN p.166]. SP940225. AC.

DUN08.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. ALDON, SHR. DB. ‘Copious spring + whale-back hill’. SO435795. AC.

DUN09.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. HIGH BUSTON, NTB. 1186. Perhaps ‘Butta’s whale-back hill’. NU231087. AC.

DUN10.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. PELDON, ESX. 946-c.951 (13c.), DB. Perhaps ‘Pylta’s whale-back hill’ or from pyltan ‘to thrust’. TL989168. AC.

DUN11.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. LATCHINGDON, ESX. 1065, DB. Uncertain, perhaps ‘læcen (‘with water channels’) + ‘whale-back hill’. The DB site was at Tyle Hill. TQ889987. AC.

DUN12.jpg 

dūn OE ‘whale-back hill’. CANEWDON, ESX. DB. ‘Whale-back hill of the Caningas’, or ‘the people called after Cana’. Seen from Fambridge. TQ896945. AC.


ēa

EA01.jpg 

ēa OE ‘river’. WATER EATON, WLT. DB. ‘Water + riverside settlement’. On the Thames near Cricklade. Gravel bank impedes navigation. SU120940. AC.

EA02.jpg 

ēa OE ‘river’. CASTLE EATON, WLT. DB. ‘Castle + riverside settlement’. On the Thames where aquatic vegetation impedes navigation close to Castle Eaton. SU146960. AC.

EA03.jpg 

ēa OE ‘river’. EATON MASCOTT, SHR. DB. ‘Riverside settlement’ + family name. View shows the Cound Brook one mile downstream of Eaton Mascott. SJ847054. AC.

EA04.jpg 

ēa OE ‘river’. EATON UPON TERN, SHR. 1255-6. ‘Riverside settlement beside the river Tern’. This stretch needs clearing. SJ648231. AC.

EA05.jpg 

ēa OE ‘river’. EATON UPON TERN, SHR. 1255-6. ‘Riverside settlement beside the river Tern’. This stretch has recently been cleared. SJ648231. AC.


ecg

ECG01.jpg 

ecg OE ‘edge’. EDGE HILL, WAR. C.1250. The steep scarp slope of the Cotswolds near Radway. SP381486. AC.

ECG02.jpg 

ecg OE ‘edge’. WENLOCK EDGE, SHR. 1675. The steep scarp slope of the Wenlock Limestone. SO445850 - SO640033. AC.


ēg, īeg

EG01.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. ISLE OF OXNEY, KNT. 724 (13c.). ‘Isle of oxen’. Seen across Pevensey Levels; formerly an island. TQ9027. AC.

EG03.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. NYLAND, formerly ANDREYESIE, SOM. 670-72 (13c.). In the marshland of the northern Somerset Levels. ST457540. AC.

EG04.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. MUCHELNEY, SOM. 725 (14c.), DB. ‘Great Island’. In the marshland of the southern Somerset Levels. ST428249. AC.

EG05.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. OTHERY, SOM. 1225. ‘The other island’ (from Sowi). Note steeple. From Burrow Mump. ST382316. AC.

EG06.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. HAXEY, LIN. DB. Haki’s island’. SK764998. AC.

EG08.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. SOUTH HINKSEY, BRK. 821(c.1200). ‘Hengest’s’ or ‘stallion’s island’. A causeway links Hinksey to Oxford across the Thames flood-plain. Hinksey has marsh only on one side. SP510040. AC.

EG09.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. SONNING EYE, OXF. 1285. ‘Island near Sonning’. The Thames in flood at Sonning Eye. SU753758. AC.

EG10.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. BOROUGH MARSH and FARM, BRK. 1220. ‘Island meadow belonging to the borough’. River Thames, flooded meadow and farm seen from Shiplake. SU774777. AC.

EG11.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. EISEY, WLT. 775-8(11c.), DB. ‘Uncertain + island’. Right-hand side of view from the south. SU113943. AC.

EG12.jpg 

ēg, īeg OE ‘island, dry ground in a marshy area’. EISEY, WLT. 775-8(11c.), DB. ‘Uncertain + island’. Left-hand side of view from the south. SU113943. AC.


ersc

ERSC01.jpg 

ersc OE ‘difficult-to-cultivate land’. WILLINGHURST, SUR. 1332. ‘Willa’s infertile or difficult-to-cultivate land’. Thin, infertile soil with stunted maize plants. TQ056488. AC.

ERSC02.jpg 

ersc OE ‘difficult-to-cultivate land’. WINNERSH, BRK. 1190. ‘Winn’ (wet meadow) + ‘difficult-to-cultivate land’. The river Loddon frequently floods this land’. SU770702. AC.


feld

FELD01.jpg 

feld OE ‘open country, unencumbered land’. GREAT WALDINGFIELD, SFK, 962-91(11c.), DB. ‘Open land of the Waldingas’. An impression of the spaciousness of a ‘feld’. TL905447 approx. AC.

FELD02.jpg 

feld OE ‘open country, unencumbered land’. LITTLE WALDINGFIELD, SFK, 962-91 (11c.), DB. ‘Open land of the Waldingas’. An impression of the spaciousness of a ’feld’. TL905447 approx. AC.

FELD03.jpg 

feld OE ‘open country, unencumbered land’. STONESFIELD, OXF. DB. ‘Stunt’s open land’. An impression of the spaciousness of a ‘feld’. SP387170. AC.


fenn

FENN01.jpg 

fenn OE ‘linear marsh’. MOUSEN, NTB. 1167. ‘Mul’s linear marsh’. Tufts of juncus indicate wetness. NU117314. AC.

FENN02.jpg 

fenn OE ‘linear marsh’. FULVEN’S FARM, SUR. 1241. ‘Foul linear marsh’. A strip of wet land beside the stream. TQ098463. AC.

FENN03.jpg 

fenn OE ‘linear marsh’. RATFYN, WLT. DB. ‘Hropa’s linear marsh’. A strip of wet land beside the River Avon (beyond the poplars). SU159423. AC.

FENN04.jpg 

fenn OE ‘linear marsh’. FENCOTT OXF. 1146 (c.1225). ‘Cottages by a linear marsh’. The linear feature may be the Roman road across Otmoor seen here. SP572153. AC.


flēot

FLEOT01.jpg 

flēot OE ‘tidal creek, place liable to fleeting, shallow inundations’. SALTFLEET, LIN. DB. ‘Tidal creek suitable for salt production’. TF460935. AC.

FLEOT02.jpg 

flēot OE ‘tidal creek, place liable to fleeting, shallow inundations’. SHALFLEET, IOW. 832 (12c.), DB. ‘Shallow tidal creek’. Looking downstream, low tide. SZ414904. AC.

FLEOT03.jpg 

flēot OE ‘tidal creek, place liable to fleeting, shallow inundations’. SHALFLEET, IOW. 832 (12c.), DB. ‘Shallow tidal creek’. Looking upstream, low tide. SZ414904. AC.

FLEOT04.jpg 

flēot OE ‘tidal creek, place liable to fleeting, shallow inundations’. FLEET (POND), HMP. 1313. ‘Place liable to fleeting inundations’. A small inland drainage basin; the pond’s waterlevel responding to rainfall amounts. SU820550. AC.


ford

FORD01.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. GLANDFORD, NFK. DB. ‘Ford where sports are held’. A crossing of the River Glaven. TG044415. AC.

FORD02.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. BATFORD, HRT. 1206. ‘Bata’s ford’. A crossing of the River Lea. TL149149. AC.

FORD03.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. GREAT SOMERFORD, WLT. 937 (12c.), DB. ‘Ford usable in summer’. A crossing of the (Bristol) Avon. In spate in April. ST968833. AC.

FORD04.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. GREAT SOMERFORD, WLT. 937 (12c.), DB. ‘Ford usable in summer’. A crossing of the (Bristol) Avon. Low flow in June. ST968833. AC.

FORD05.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. HARPFORD (FARM), SOM. 899-909. ‘Herepæth’ (main road) ‘ford’. A crossing of the River Tone. ST107214. AC.

FORD06.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. FAIRFORD, GLO. 862 (14c.), DB. ‘The fair ford’, perhaps meaning always usable. A crossing of the River Coln at normal flow. SP150013. AC.

FORD07.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. FAIRFORD, GLO. 862 (14c.), DB. ‘The fair ford’, perhaps meaning always usable. This crossing of the Coln was still passable although nearby rivers were in full flood. SP150013. AC.

FORD08.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. CHALFORD (Enstone), OXF. DB. ‘Chalk or limestone ford’. A crossing of the River Glyme, showing white limestone bed. SP350252. AC.

FORD09.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. GREATFORD, LIN. DB. ‘Gravelly ford’. A crossing of the River Glen. TF087120. AC.

FORD10.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. HARPFORD, DEV. 1167-1244, SY089903. NEWTON POPPLEFORD, DEV. 1226, SY092899. A crossing of the River Otter. The view is of Harpford but it shows the pebbles (Budleigh Salterton Pebble Beds) giving name to Poppleford ½ mile downstream. SY089903 & SY092899. AC.

FORD11.jpg 

ford OE ‘ford, causeway’. WHITTLESFORD, CAM. C.972 (15c.), DB. ‘Witel’s ford’. A causeway, now surfaced, leading to a ford over the River Cam (in the trees). TL475492. AC.


funta

FUNTA01.jpg 

funta OE borrowing from Latin, ‘spring’. MOTTISFONT, HMP. DB. ‘Meeting place spring’. But whether of people or streams is uncertain. A particularly copious spring. SU327270. AC.


gelād

GELAD01.jpg 

gelād OE ‘difficult river crossing’. LECHLADE, GLO. DB. ‘Difficult crossing’ (of the Thames) ‘by the River Leach’. Flooded Thames at St John’s bridge. SU223900. AC.

GELAD02.jpg 

gelād OE ‘difficult river crossing’. ABLOAD’S COURT, GLO. 1190. ‘Abba’s difficult river crossing’. The Severn in flood ponds back the Horsbere and Hatherley Brooks causing the road by Abload’s Court to be flooded. SO827214. AC.

GELAD03.jpg 

gelād OE ‘difficult river crossing’. WAINLODE HILL, GLO. 1378. ‘Waggon + difficult crossing’. The flooding Severn ponds back the River Chelt and Leigh Brook which then flood the road here. Normal flow; no floods. SO847257. AC.

GELAD04.jpg 

gelād OE ‘difficult river crossing’. WAINLODE HILL, GLO. 1378. ‘Waggon + difficult crossing’. The flooding Severn ponds back the River Chelt and Leigh brook which then flood the road here. View in flood time. SO847257. AC.


(ge)wæd

GEWAED01.jpg 

(ge)wæd OE ‘difficult crossing’. WADEBRIDGE, CNW. 1382. ‘Bridge at a difficult crossing’. Across the tidal River Camel; “bridge” is a later addition. SW990724. AC.

GEWAED02.jpg 

(ge)wæd OE ‘difficult crossing’. CATTAWADE, SFK, 1247. ‘Wild cat difficult crossing’. The crossing is over the tidal River Stour. Southern side. TM099327. AC.

GEWAEDE03.jpg 

(ge)wæd OE ‘difficult crossing’. CATTAWADE, SFK, 1247. ‘Wild cat difficult crossing’. The crossing is over the tidal River Stour. Northern side. TM100327. AC.

GEWAEDE04.jpg 

(ge)wæd OE ‘difficult crossing’. ST. NICHOLAS AT WADE, KNT, 1254. ‘Difficult crossing + church dedication’. Here, formerly, was a tidal crossing of the Wantsum Channel to Thanet. St. Nicholas at Wade TR265666. View: Gilling Drove TR232651. TR265666 & TR232651. MG.


gil

GIL01.jpg 

gil ON ‘ravine, deep valley with a stream’. HALTON GILL, YOW. 1457. ‘Ravine at Halton’. Halton is ‘settlement in a nook’; here there is a slight embayment in Littondale at the end of the gill. SD880765. AC.


grǣfe

GRAEFE01.jpg 

grǣfe OE ‘coppiced woodland’. Coppiced woodland area near Goring, OXF. In spring. See under hyll for Graven Hill. SU6080. AC.


hǣth

HAETH01.jpg 

hǣth OE ‘heather, tract of uncultivated land’. HEATH (AND REACH), BDF. 1276. ‘Tract of uncultivated land’. In Stockgrove Park with birch, bracken and gorse in sight. SP920294 approx. AC.


halh, healh

HALH01.jpg 

halh, healh OE ‘nook, hollow, valley’. ULLENHALL, WAR. DB. ‘Owl’s nook’. The settlement is in a sheltered hollow. [LPN p.124]. SP121672. AC.

HALH02.jpg 

halh, healh OE ‘nook, hollow, valley’. STRETHALL, ESX, DB. ‘Nook by the Roman road’. The settlement is on the skyline; the Roman road in the ploughed field. TL490405 approx. AC.

HALH03.jpg 

halh, healh OE ‘nook, hollow, valley’. RIVENHALL, ESX, 1068 (1309), DB. ‘Rough hollow’. TL827177. MG.

HALH04.jpg 

halh, healh OE ‘nook, hollow, valley’. DAGNALL, BUC. 1192 (c.1300). ‘Dagga’s nook’. Referring to the funnel-shaped embayment in the scarp slope of the Chilterns; seen from the south. SP992163. AC.

HALH05.jpg 

halh, healh OE ‘nook, hollow, valley’. WROXALL, IOW. 1043-4 (12c.), DB. ‘Buzzard’s valley’. The birds of prey soar on the strong up-currents here; seen from the west. [LPN p.124]. SZ550800. AC.

HALH06.jpg 

halh, healh OE ‘nook, hollow, valley’. BURNSALL, YOW. DB. ‘Bryni’s nook’. The settlement stands in a bend of the Wharfe. SE033614. AC.

HALH07.jpg 

halh, healh OE ‘nook, hollow, valley’. LEINTHALL EARLS, HRE. DB. ‘Valley by the River Lent associated with the earl’; seen from the east. [LPN p.124]. SO443677. AC.


hamm

HAMM01.jpg 

hamm OE ‘land hemmed in, river meadow’. PASSENHAM, NTP. 921, DB. ‘Passa’s land in a river bend’. By the Great Ouse. SP780395. AC.

HAMM02.jpg 

hamm OE ‘land hemmed in , river meadow’. REMENHAM, BRK. DB. ‘Rim + land in a river band’. Probably hamm not hām; the rim could be the hill in the foreground or the bank of the Thames which loops round the river meadow. SU771842. AC.

HAMM03.jpg 

hamm OE ‘land hemmed in, river meadow’. BISHAM, BUC. DB. ‘Byssel’s land in a river bend’. Probably a hamm not a hām. Beside the Thames. SU848855. AC.

HAMM04.jpg 

hamm OE ‘land hemmed in, river meadow’. HAMPTON BISHOP, HRE. DB. ‘Settlement in a river meadow’. The settlement lies between the Wye and the Lugg; seen from Mordiford across the Lugg. SO559380. AC.

HAMM05.jpg 

hamm OE ‘land hemmed in, river meadow’. CHESHAM, BUC. 966-75 (12c.). DB. ‘Hemmed-in meadow with a heap of stones’. The meadow is bounded by a stream each side and steeply rising hillsides. SP956015. AC.


helde

HELDE01.jpg 

helde OE slope, inclined plane’. LEARCHILD, NTB. 1242. ‘Leofric’s slope’. NU101110. MG.

HELDE02.jpg 

helde OE ‘slope, inclined plane’. STANYELD, SHR. No early dates but pre 1840. ‘Stony slope’. North-eastern slope of the Cardingmill valley - a smooth hillside. SO448944. AC.

HELDE03.jpg 

helde OE ‘slope, inclined plane’. YELL BANK, SHR. No early dates but pre-1833. ‘Smooth slope’. A ridge with smooth slopes on both sides, north of Cardington. SO505970. MG.


hlāw, hlǣw

HLAW01.jpg 

hlāw, hlǣw OE ‘tumulus, hill, mound’. DRAKELOW, WOR. 1240. ‘Dragon’s mound’. North of Kidderminster. SO820803. MG.

HLAW02.jpg 

hlāw, hlǣw OE ‘tumulus, hill, mound’. LEW, OXF. 984 (13c.), DB. ‘At the tumulus’. SP318064. AC.

HLAW03.jpg 

hlāw, hlǣw OE ‘tumulus, hill, mound’. BARTLOW, CAM. 1232. ‘At the birch-tree tumuli’. These are Romano-British burial mounds. TL585449. AC.


hlinc

HLINC01.jpg 

hlinc OE ‘bank, ledge, terrace’. LINKENHOLT, HMP. DB. ‘Wood with terraces’. [LPN p.181]. SU365584. AC.

HLINC02.jpg 

hlinc OE ‘bank, ledge, terrace’. MOORLINCH, SOM. 725 (12c.). ‘Pleasant terrace’. This terraceway links Moorlinch to Sutton Mallett [LPN p.181]. ST398368. MG.

HLINC03.jpg 

hlinc OE ‘bank, ledge, terrace’. LYNCH FARM, HRE. ‘Terraceway farm’. This seems to be an old route leading to a crossing of the Teme near Little Hereford. [LPN p.181]. . SO547676. AC.

HLINC04.jpg 

hlinc OE ‘bank, ledge, terrace’. LYNCH FARM, DOR948 (15c.). On a pass through the hills north of Kingston in Purbeck. SY960800. MG.

HLINC05.jpg 

hlinc OE ‘bank, ledge, terrace’. STONELINK, SSX, c.1210. ‘Stone terraceway’. Near Fairlight. TQ870125. MG.

HLINC06.jpg 

hlinc OE ‘bank, ledge, terrace’. STOCKLINCH (OTTERSAY), SOM. DB. ‘Ledge place’. There are strip lynchets on the slope above the church. ST386172. MG.


hlith

HLITH01.jpg 

hlith OE ‘’Slope, concave hillside’. HUGLITH, SHR. 1244. Probably ‘Hugga’s concave hillside’. [LPN p.183]. SJ407021. AC.

HLITH02.jpg 

hlith OE ‘slope, concave hillside’. PONTESFORD HILL, SHR. 1351. Earlier Ponteslith, ‘Pant’s concave hillside’. The concavity is on the western (left) side of the central hill (Pontesford Hill). SJ405047. AC.

HLITH03.jpg 

hlith OE ‘slope, concave hillside’. GATLEY, HRE. 1275. ‘Goat’s concave hillside’. [LPN p.183]. SO450684. MG.

HLITH04.jpg 

hlith OE ‘slope, concave hillside’. WEST LEITH, HRT. 1525. ‘Concave hillside’. The settlement lies in a hollow at the foot of the Chiltern scarp. SP916104. AC.

HLITH05.jpg 

hlith OE ‘slope, concave hillside’. LITTON, YOW. DB. ‘Settlement in a concave hillside’. Looking NW up Littondale. SD907742. AC.


hōh

HOH01.jpg 

hōh OE ‘heel, hill-spur rising gently then falling away concavely’. IVINGHOE, BUC. DB. ‘Hill-spur of the Ifingas’. The spur rises gently and descends concavely when seen from the NE. [LPN p.187]. SP959169. AC.

HOH02.jpg 

hōh OE ‘heel, hill-spur rising gently then falling away concavely’. TYSOE, WAR. DB. ‘Hill-spur of Tīw’. The spur rises to a peak, then falls concavely. [LPN p.187]. SP350440. MG.

HOH03.jpg 

hōh OE ‘heel, hill-spur rising gently then falling away concavely’. INGOE, NTB. 1229. ‘Uncertain first element + hill-spur’. View from the SW [LPN p.187]. NZ038748. AC.

HOH04.jpg 

hōh OE ‘heel, hill-spur rising gently then falling away concavely’. VIEW EDGE, SHR. ‘View’. is a corruption of WEO (farm) ’weg + hōh’, evidenced in 1255, seen from the NE [LPN p.187]. SO413810. AC.

HOH05.jpg 

hōh OE ‘heel, hill-spur rising gently then falling away concavely’. HOUGHTON ST GILES, NFK, DB. ‘Settlement by a hill-spur’. St Giles from the church dedication. TF923354. AC.

HOH06.jpg 

hōh OE ‘heel, hill-spur rising gently then falling away concavely’. STENIGOT, LIN. DB. ‘Stony hill-spur’. Seen from the south. TF258810. AC.

HOH07.jpg 

hōh OE ‘heel, hill-spur rising gently then falling away concavely’. AYNHO, NTP. DB. Ǣga’s hill-spur. Seen from the south. SP515331. AC.


hop

HOP01.jpg 

hop OE ‘secluded or remote valley or place’. RATLINGHOPE, SHR. DB. ‘Secluded valley associated with Rōtel’. The settlement is in the centre of the view among the trees at the bend in the valley. [LPN p.138]. SO404969. AC.

HOP02.jpg 

hop OE ‘secluded or remote valley or place’. OXNOP, YON. 1301. ‘Secluded valley of the oxen’. A tributary valley leading to Swaledale. SD930963. MG.

HOP04.jpg 

hop OE ‘secluded or remote valley or place’. HOPE (near Shelve), SHR. 1242. ‘Secluded valley’. SJ341015. MG.

HOP05.jpg 

hop OE ‘secluded or remote valley or place’. MIDDLEHOPE, SHR. DB. ‘Middle place in a seclude valley’. It lies in Hopedale between Wenlock Edge to the left and the Aymestry Limestone escarpment to the right. SO49888. AC.


hyll

HYLL02.jpg 

hyll OE ‘hill’. HILL, GLO. DB. In the Vale of Berkeley. ST649953. . AC.


hӯth

HYTHE01.jpg 

hӯth OE ‘landing place’. KNAITH, LIN. DB. ‘Landing place at the knee’. The ‘knee’. refers to a bend in the Trent. View from the churchyard on a slight rise above the floodplain. SK829846. AC.

HYTHE02.jpg 

hӯth OE ‘landing place’. STOCKWITH ‘landing place made with tree trunks’. 1188. EAST STOCKWITH, LIN. SK787945. WEST STOCKWITH, NTT. SK790948. At the junction of Bykers Dyke and the Trent; marshy flood-prone site requiring timberwork. Looking north. SK787945 & SK790948. AC.

HYTHE03.jpg 

hӯth OE ‘landing place’. CREEKSEA, ESX, DB. ‘Uncertain first element + landing place’. Terminus of modern ferry on a slight rise above the salt marshes. TQ931958. AC.


lacu

LACU01.jpg 

lacu OE ‘backwater’. STANDLAKE, OXF. c.1155. ‘Stony backwater’. A branch of the River Windrush. SP397037. AC.


lād

LAD01.jpg 

lād OE ‘dyked watercourse, canal’. LODE, CAM. 1154-89. ‘Canal’. Named from Bottisham Lode (1279) which links into the River Cam. TL530633. AC.

LAD02.jpg 

lād OE ‘dyked watercourse, canal’. REACH LODE, CAM. 1279. This waterway, which survived in use until the 1930s, linked high ground to the River Cam through Reach. q.v. under rǣc. TL565 664. AC.

LAD03.jpg 

lād OE ‘dyked watercourse, canal’. CURLOAD, SOM. 1250. ‘Curry canal’. An artificial course of the River Tone adjacent to the Curry peninsula. ST340279. AC.


læcc

LAECC01.jpg 

læcc OE ‘boggy stream’. LASHBROOK, OXF. DB. ‘Boggy muddy stream’. A small tributary of the Thames. SU777796. AC.

LAECC02.jpg 

læcc OE ‘boggy stream’. LASHFORD (LANE), OXF. 956 (c.1240). ‘Ford over the boggy stream’. SP468014. AC.


mǣd

MAED01.jpg 

mǣd OE ‘meadow, pasture’. PORT MEADOW, OXF. c.1185. ‘Citizens’ meadow’. The animals belong to those with grazing rights on the meadow. SP495085. AC.


mere

MERE01.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. ASHMORE, DOR. DB. ‘Ash-tree pond’. Essential water supply on high chalk downland; near routeways. ST913178. AC.

MERE02.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. BUTTERMERE, WLT. 863 (c.1150), DB. ‘Butter pond’. High on chalk downland by a ridgeway. SU343610. AC.

MERE03.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. ROCKMOOR POOL, WLT. 863 (c.1150). Perhaps ‘ditch’ or ‘drain’ + ‘pond’. On high chalk downland where three counties meet. SU340590. AC.

MERE04.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. CATMORE, BRK. c.935 (c.1200), DB. ‘Wild cat pond’. On chalk downland by an old routeway [LPN p.23]. SU454804. MG.

MERE05.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. FINMERE, OXF. DB. ‘Woodpecker pond’. Close to where two routes cross each other. SP633321. AC.

MERE06.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. FALMER, SSX, DB. ‘Fallow coloured pond’. High on the South Downs chalk. TQ354087. AC.

MERE07.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. BOULMER, NTB. 1161. ‘Bull pond’. NU262144. MG.

MERE08.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. SEMER, SFK, DB. ‘Sǣ’ (lake) + ‘mere’. Mere used as an explanatory term when the meaning of had been forgotten. TL999467. AC.

MERE09.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. MARTIN MERE, LNC (near Ormskirk). MARTIN DB stood by MARTIN MERE in 1396. Martin – ‘settlement by a lake’. Once a fishery now partially drained. SD420140. MG.

MERE10.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. COLDMARTIN, NTB. 1195. ‘Settlement by a cold lake’. They lie on a hilltop. NU005272. MG.

MERE11.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. MARTON, SHR. DB. ‘Settlement by a lake’. Marton pool contained many fish. A Roman road passed nearby. [LPN p.23]. SJ288025. AC.

MERE12.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. MARTEN, WLT. DB. ‘Settlement by a pond’. It is a man-made pond at the foot of the Chute Causeway (a Roman road). SU283600. AC.

MERE13.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. MERTON, OXF. DB. ‘Settlement by a mere’. The mere only appears intermittently since WW2 drainage works. A Roman road runs between the settlement and the mere. SP567175. AC.

MERE14.jpg 

mere OE ‘pond, lake, mere’. TADMARTON, OXF. 956, DB. ‘Toad or frog pool’. Flood-washed grass with pools. A Roman road runs nearby. SP394379. AC.


mōr

MOR01.jpg 

mōr OE ‘marsh, moor, barren upland’. MURCOT, OXF. c.1191 (c.1280). ‘Cottages by the moor’. A hamlet on the edge of Otmoor, often flooded in winter. SP583156. AC.

MOR03.jpg 

mōr OE ‘marsh, moor, barren upland’. WIGMORE, HRE. DB. ‘Unstable ground + moor’. An area of marshy lowland, now drained. SO420700 approx. AC.

MOR04.jpg 

mōr OE ‘marsh, moor, barren upland’. MOOR FARM (Godshill), IOW. DB. ‘Marshy ground’. SZ530824. AC.

MOR05.jpg 

mōr OE ‘marsh, moor, barren upland’. MOOR END (COMMON), BUC. 13c. The chapel of St Mary de More (13c.) was adjacent to a miniature inland drainage basin called Moor Common. SU803905. AC.

MOR06.jpg 

mōr OE ‘marsh, moor, barren upland’. MURTON, NTB. 1312. ‘Settlement on a moor’. View of Murton Craggy Bog half a mile west of Murton. NT955482. AC.

MOR07.jpg 

mōr OE ‘marsh, moor, barren upland’. MURTON, WML. 1235. ‘Settlement on a moor’. View of the hamlet with Murton Pike rising behind. NY728216. AC.


ofer

OFER01.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. SPERNALL, WAR. DB. ‘Hill-spur where plaster was got’. Gypsum has been mined here. SP103625. AC.

OFER02.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. HASELOR, WAR. DB. ‘hazel-tree hill-spur’. Haselor lies between two old routes. View from NW. [LPN p.201]. SP124579. MG.

OFER03.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. SHOTOVER, OXF DB. ‘Steep hill-spur’. Marks an important crossroads at the foot of the slope. No settlement called Shotover. Viewed from the S. Some confusion with ōra. [LPN p.201]. SP562063. AC.

OFER04.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. WYCHNOR, STF. DB. ‘Hwicce + hill-spur’. . Marks the crossing of a Roman road over the Trent. Viewed from south. SK176161. MG.

OFER05.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. WELLINGORE, LIN. 1070-87. Uncertain first element related to ‘a spring’ + ‘hill-spur’. Near a Roman road and a ridgeway. Viewed from the south. SK982566. AC.

OFER06.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. OVERGRASS, NTB. 1255. ‘Gore + hill-spur’. Between two old routes. Seen from the north. NU150038. AC.

OFER07.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-toppped hill-spur with a. convex shoulder’. WOOLER, NTB. 1187. ‘Hill-spur with a spring’. Referring to Weetwood Moor. Near a Roman road. Seen from the north. [LPN p.201]. NT993280. MG.

OFER08.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. SOUTHOVER (Burton Bradstock), DOR. 1538 ‘Hill-spur on the south bank’. On the south side of the River Bride. SY487893. AC.

OFER09.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. SOUTHOVER (Frampton), DOR, 1670. ‘Hill on the south bank’. On the south side of the River Frome. SY624948. AC.

OFER10.jpg 

ofer OE ‘flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. NORTHOVER (Glastonbury), SOM. No. date. ‘Hill-spur on the north bank’. On the north side of the River Brue adjoining Glastonbury Tor. ST487379. AC.


ōra

ORA01.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. OARE , WLT. 933 (14c.). ‘Flat-topped hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. [LPN p.207]. SU155638. AC.

ORA02.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. BRADNOR HRE1216-72. ‘Broad hill with a convex shoulder’. Adjacent to a major route into Wales [LPN p.207]. SO283584. MG.

ORA03.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. CHINNOR, OXF. DB. ‘Ceonna’s hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. Conspicuous landform beside the Icknield Way [LPN p.207]. SP772010. AC.

ORA04.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. STONOR, OXF. late 10c (11c.). ‘Stony hill-spur with a convex shoulder’. Adjacent to an old routeway [LPN p.207]. SU740895. AC.

ORA05.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. AXFORD, HMP. 1272. ‘Ash tree flat-topped hill with a convex. shoulder’. SU616433. AC.

ORA06.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. COLMENORAN (near Cumnor), BRK. 985 (c.1200) ‘Coalman’s flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. A charter boundary example. The footpath follows the line of the Roman road. SP478032. AC.

ORA08.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. ASHOUR, KNT, c.1200. ‘Flat-topped hill with ash trees’. Beside the River Medway. TQ547441. AC.

ORA09.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. UPNOR, KNT, 1374. ‘Higher flat-topped hill’. The settlement is further up the Medway than Lower Upnor, towards Rochester. TQ758705. MG.

ORA11.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. BURE (HOMAGE), HMP. t.Hy2. ‘By the flat-topped hill’. The ōra is Hengistbury Head marking the entrance to Christchurch Harbour. SZ186928. AC.

ORA12.jpg 

ōra OE borrowing from Latin, ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. YEARNOR, SOM. 1419. ‘Eagle’s flat-topped hill’. Marks the entrance to Porlock’s haven. SS848496. AC.


pæth

PAETH01.jpg 

pæth OE ‘path, upland track’. YARNPATH, NTB. 1233. ‘Eagle’s upland track’. A monastic and drover route through the Cheviot Hills heading for Usway Ford. NT892138. AC.

PAETH02.jpg 

pæth OE ‘path, upland track’. HUDSPETH, NTB. 1252. ‘Hod’s upland track’. The farm lies about 650 feet up, on the edge of moorland. [LPN p.89]. NY948942. MG.

PAETH03.jpg 

pæth OE ‘path, upland track’. ROPPA, YON. 1160. ‘Red path’. Upland track over the North York Moors. SE586910. AC.

PAETH04.jpg 

pæth OE ‘path, upland track’. SMYTHAPARK, DEV. 1270. ‘Smooth path’. The track follows the contour round the hillside. SS629384. AC.

PAETH05.jpg 

pæth OE ‘path, upland track’. HEREPATH OE ‘main road, track suitable for an army to use’. This herepath is a charter boundary example at Ginge, BRK, 956 (c.1200). SU446860. AC.


pīc

PIC01.jpg 

pīc OE ‘point’. DUFTON PIKE, WML. 1588. ‘Pointed hill at the farmstead where doves were kept’. NT700266. AC.


pōl

POL01.jpg 

pōl OE ‘pool, lake’. RADIPOLE, DOR. DB. ‘Reedy lake’. At the mouth of the River Wey, with phragmites (Norfolk reed). SY674800. MG.

POL02.jpg 

pōl OE ‘pool, lake’. POLSTEAD, SFK. 795(11c.) DB. ‘Place with a pool’. TL990381. MG.


port

PORT01.jpg 

port OE borrowing from Latin, ‘harbour, haven’. PORLOCK, SOM. 10c, DB. ‘Harbour enclosure’. The “managed retreat” of the coast will allow the haven to re-form behind the spit. View from Bossington Hill. SS8847. AC.

PORT02.jpg 

port OE borrowing from Latin, ‘harbour, haven’. PORTISHEAD, SOM. DB. ‘harbour headland’. The fields were formerly the open water of the haven. ST465760. AC.


pyll

PYLL01.jpg 

pyll OE ‘pool, creek, stream’. FOWL’S PILL (Beckley), OXF. pre 1827. ‘Wild fowl pool’. A field name referring to the last part of Otmoor to dry out in summer. SP572140. AC.


rǣc

REAC01.jpg 

rǣc OE ‘raised strip’. REACH, CAM. DB. ‘Raised strip’. Here referring to the Devil’s Dike running down to the settlement at the Fen edge. TL566662. AC.

REAC02.jpg 

rǣc OE ‘raised strip’ (HEATH AND) REACH, BDF. 1276. Probably referring to the agger of the Roman road (Watling Street) here. SP938299. AC.


ric

RIC01.jpg 

*ric OE ‘raised strip’. MARRICK (PRIORY), YON. DB. Uncertain, perhaps second element is rǣc, *ric. The linear earthwork across the view could be the raised strip. SE069974. AC.

RIC02.jpg 

*ric OE ‘raised strip’. KIMMERIDGE, DOR. DB. Personal name or ‘convenient, splendid’ +. ‘raised strip’. The dark line across the view marks a gorsy ridge where the Kimmeridge clay gives way to limestone. SY907802. AC.

RIC03.jpg 

*ric OE ‘raised strip’. WHELDRAKE YOE. DB. ‘death (?) + raised strip’. Wheldrake is at the eastern end of the Escrick moraine seen here. Escrick (DB) means ‘ash tree raised strip’. SE683450. AC.


rīthig, rīth

RITHIG01.jpg 

rīthig, rīth OE ‘small stream’. FULLREADY, WAR. DB. ‘Dirty small stream’. SP283463. AC.


scelf

SCELF01.jpg 

scelf OE ‘shelf, flat land’. SHILTON, OXF. 1044 (12c.). ‘Settlement on or by flat land’. Southern part of the flat area. [LPN p.217]. SP266075. AC.

SCELF02.jpg 

scelf OE ‘shelf, flat land’. SHILTON, OXF. 1044 (12c.). ‘Settlement on or by flat land’. Northern part of the flat area with Shilton church. SP268082. AC.

SCELF03.jpg 

scelf OE ‘shelf, flat land’. SHELTON (UNDER HARLEY), STF. DB. ‘Settlement by flat land’. The valley floor is very flat. [LPN p.217]. SJ818395. MG.

SCELF04.jpg 

scelf OE ‘shelf, flat land’. SHELLAND, SFK, DB. ‘Shelf land’. TL995596. MG.

SCELF05.jpg 

scelf OE ‘shelf, flat land’. BRAMSHALL, STF. DB. ‘Broom covered flat land’. [LPN p.217]. SK061332. MG.

SCELF06.jpg 

scelf OE ‘shelf, flat land’. SHELVE, SHR. 1180. ‘Shelf’. The only flat land in a hilly district. Viewed from the south. SO336990. AC.

SCELF07.jpg 

scelf OE ‘shelf, flat land’. SHILSTONE (Drewsteignton), DEV. DB. ‘Shelf stone’. Referring to the cap stone of this cromlech (the Spinster’s Rock). SX702906. AC.


slæd

SLAED01.jpg 

slæd OE ‘valley, usually a wet one’. CASTLETT, GLO. DB. ‘Wet valley of the wild cats’. SP092258. AC.


slǣp

SLAEP01.jpg 

slǣp OE ‘slippery place’. ISLIP, OXF. c.1050, DB. ‘Slippery place by the River Ight’. The River Ray was formerly called the Ight. The old routeway descends steeply both sides. of the crossing. It is often flooded. SP527138. AC.


sol(h)

SOLH01.jpg 

sol(h) OE ‘muddy place, wallow’. BUTTSOLE, KNT, no date. ‘Wallowing place by the butts’. TR300543. MG.


sol(h), sele

SOLH02.jpg 

sol(h), sele OE ‘muddy place, wallow’. SELSTEAD, KNT, 1304. ‘Place with a mire or wallow’. TR219447. MG.


stīg

STIG01.jpg 

stīg OE ‘upland path’. BRINGSTY, HRE. 1219-34. ‘Brink path’. An old route runs along the crest of the hill. SO702552. AC.


stǫth

STOTH01.jpg 

stǫth ON ‘landing place’. BURTON STATHER, LIN. 1201. ‘Landing place of the settlement by the fortified place’. It is by the Trent. SE864185. AC.


strǣt

STRAET01.jpg 

strǣt OE ‘paved road’. STRETTON GRANDISON, HRE. DB. ’Settlement by a paved road + family name’. The church (in the trees) lies close to the Roman road. SO633441. AC.


wæsse

WAESSE01.jpg 

wæsse OE ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. ALREWAS, STF. 941(14c.), DB. ‘Land that floods and drains quickly with alders’. Where a Roman road crosses the Trent. View from Wychnor Hall. SK162166 approx. MG.

WAESSE02.jpg 

wæsse OE ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. WASPERTON, WAR. DB. ‘Pear orchard by the land that floods and drains quickly’. Flooded Avon near Wasperton from Copdock Hill with Sherbourne’s spire. SP256585. AC.

WAESSE03.jpg 

wæsse OE ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. WASPERTON, WAR. DB. ‘Pear orchard by the land that floods and drains quickly’. Minor flooding of Avon from Copdock Hill; Wasperton on far bank. SP256591. AC.

WAESSE04.jpg 

wæsse OE ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. WASPERTON, WAR. DB. ‘Pear orchard by land that floods and drains quickly’. Flooded Avon near to Wasperton’s housing. SP266590. AC.

WAESSE05.jpg 

wæsse OE ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. BUILDWAS, SHR. DB. Uncertain first element + ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. Flooded on Saturday (cf. next photo). SJ625045 approx. MG.

WAESSE06.jpg 

wæsse OE ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. BUILDWAS, SHR. DB. Uncertain first element + ‘land that floods and drains quickly’. Floods mostly drained away by Sunday (cf. previous photo). SJ625045 approx. MG.


wæter

WAETER01.jpg 

wæter OE ‘water’. WATER EATON, OXF. 1220-30 (Eaton 864 (11c), DB). ‘Riverside settlement susceptible to floods’. Contrasts with Woodeaton just across the River Cherwell. SP515121. AC.

WAETER02.jpg 

wæter OE ‘water’. WATERSTOCK OXF. 1209-19 (Stock DB). ‘Place susceptible to floods’. by the Thame. Waterperry OXF (1186-91) lies just across the River Thame from Waterstock. SP633055. AC.


weg

WEG01.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. RADWAY, WAR. DB. ‘Red steep track’. Leads down the Cotswold scarp slope near Edge Hill. SP376478. AC.

WEG02.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. FARWAY, DEV. DB. ‘Fearsome steep track’. The settlement lies in the hollow. This road is steeper than 1 in 5 in two places. SY173946. AC.

WEG03.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. HOLWAY, DOR/SOM. 1225?. ‘Deep-cut steep track’. The track is deep-cut at the brow of the hill. ST634203. AC.

WEG04.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. HOLWAY DOR/SOM. 1225?. ‘Deep-cut steep track’. The track descends steeply to Sandford Orcas. ST634203. AC.

WEG05.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. GREENWAY, DEV. DB. ‘Green steep track’. Leading off the hills to Luppitt. ST164053. AC.

WEG06.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’ (NETHER) STOWEY, DEV. DB. ‘(Lower) stony steep track’. This track leads over the Quantocks to Halsway. ST195396. AC.

WEG07.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. HIGH STOY, DOR. Hy 3 (14c.). ‘High (end of the) stony steep track’. The track leads down the chalk scarp slope. ST648056. AC.

WEG08.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. STANWAY, GLO. 1105. ‘Stony steep track’. The track descends the Cotswold’s scarp slope. SP061323. AC.

WEG09.jpg 

weg OE ‘road, track, usually steep’. STANWAY, SHR. DB. ‘Stony steep track’. Shown leading up onto Wenlock Edge. SO533899. AC.


well(-a, -e)

WELLE01.jpg 

well(-a, -e) OE ‘spring’. STOWELL, GLO. DB. ‘Stony spring’. The spring is by the white stones at the centre of the view. SP085131. AC.

WELLE02.jpg 

well(-a, -e) OE ‘spring’. BROADWELL, GLO. 11c.(c.1200), DB. ‘Wide spring’. There are several springs in this large hollow. SP201276. AC.

WELLE03.jpg 

well(-a, -e) OE ‘spring’. PICKWELL, LEI. DB. ‘Spring by the peaks’. SK784113. AC.

WELLE04.jpg 

well(-a, -e) OE ‘spring’. HERRINGSWELL, SFK. DB. ‘Spring of the Hyrningas’. TL718700. AC.


wisc

WISC01.jpg 

wisc OE ‘marshy meadow’. WHISTLEY GREEN, BRK. 968(c.1200), DB. ‘Marshy meadow pasture’. The meadow gets flooded by the River Loddon. SU782279. AC.


yfre

YFRE01.jpg 

yfre OE ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. RIVAR, WLT. 931. ‘At the flat-topped hill with the convex shoulder’. This word is related to ofer. SU318617. AC.

YFRE02.jpg 

yfre OE ‘flat-topped hill with a convex shoulder’. SUTTON IVERS, WLT. No date. Sutton, Compton and Burcombe Ivers may refer to a series of spurs along this chalk scarp slope. Looking east. ST990262 approx. AC.